Standard treatments for disease and illness were also fodder for the caricaturist's pen. Until the end of the nineteenth century, there were very few medicines physicians could prescribe that actually cured disease or affliction. It was an age of “heroic” medicine that consisted of “copious bleeding and massive doses of drugs.”8Lois N. Manger, History of Medicine, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1992, p. 205. In the following three etchings, artist James Gillray demonstrates three common therapies employed by physicians of the day to cure disease: bloodletting, puking, and purging. Gillray's use of vivid facial expressions also captures patients' reaction to such treatments. In “Breathing a vein” the patient disdainfully looks away as the physician bleeds his arm. In “Gentle Emetic” and “Taking Physick” the patients appear to be in utter agony as they suffer with vomiting and diarrhea. Having experienced such treatments themselves, Gillray's audience could readily identify with the misery and pain induced by these popular medical practices of the day.9Fiona Haslam, From Hogarth to Rowandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996, p. 143.